1.In order to为了……Usage: “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example: “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.”
2. In other words换句话说Usage: Use“in other words” when you want to express something in a different way(more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point.
Example: “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.”
3. To put it another way 换句话说Usage: This phrase is another way of saying“in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points
when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance.
Example: “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.”
4. That is to say也就是说Usage: “Thatis” and“that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise.
这个短语一般是用在当你想要增加一些更细节的信息，或者想要说的更加精确的时候。Example: “Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.”
5. To that end为了达到那个目的 Usage: Use“to that end” or“to this end” in a similar way to“in order to” or“so”.
其实to that end或者to this end的用法和in order to或者so的用法相似。
Example: “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.
”Adding additional information to support a point 添加额外的信息来支撑一个观点
Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of“and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’ remaking, or to build an argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this.
6.Moreover另外，此外、还有……Usage: Employ“moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making.这个词一般用在一个句子的开始来增加额外的信息，用以支撑你正在树立的观点。
Example: “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…”
7.Furthermore此外，而且Usage: This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information.Example: “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…”
8. What’s more此外Usage: This is used in the same way as“moreover” and“furthermore”.
Example: “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.”
9. Likewise同样地Usage: Use“likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned.当你想要表述某一个与你前面提到的内容相一致的东西的时候，你就可以使用这个词。
Example: “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, scholars argue compellingly in favour of this point of view.”
10.Similarly类似地Usage: Use“similarly” in the same way as“likewise”. Example: “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’ snew work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Similarly,
we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.”
11.Another key thing to remembe注意啦，重要的事情不会讲3遍，因为我码字也很累滴！Usage: Use the phrase“another key point to remember” or“another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word“also”.
Example: “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.”
12. As well as usage: Use“as well as” instead of“also” or“and”.同样可以用来替代also或者and。
Example:“Scholar A argued that this was due toX, as well as Y.”
13.Not only…but also不仅如此……而且……Usage: This wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information.
Example:“Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.”
14.Coupled with usage: Used when considering two or more arguments at a time.当同时提出两个或者更多的论点的时候，可以使用这个短语进行过渡。
Example:“Coupled with the literary evidence,thestatistics paint a compelling view of…”
15. Firstly, secondly, thirdly…Usage:This can be used to structure an argument,presenting facts clearly one afterthe other.
Example:“There are many points in support ofthis view.Firstly,X.Secondly,Y.And thirdly,Z.
16.Not to mention/to say nothing of更不必说Usage:“Notto mention”and“to say nothing of”can be used to add extra informationwith a bit of emphasis.提供另外的一些信息，并且对这额外的信息加以一定的强调。
Example:“The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people,not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.”Wordsand phrases for demonstrating contrast表示对比的词语或短语。
Whenyou’redeveloping an argument,you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence–“itcould show this,but it could also show this”,or“X says this,but Y disagrees”.
This section covers words you can use instead of the“but”in these examples,to make your writing sound moreintelligent and interesting.
17.However 然而，但是Usage:Use“however”to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example:“Scholar A thinks this. However, scholars reached a different conclusion.”
18.On the other handUsage:Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of thesame piece of evidence,a different piece of evidence that suggests something else,or an opposing opinion.
Example:“The historical evidence appears tosuggest a clear-cut situation.On the other hand,the archaeological evidencepresents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.”
19.Having said that除……之外，即便如此Usage:Used in a similar manner to“on the other hand”or“but”.与on the other hand或者but用法类似。
Example:“The historians are unanimous intelling us X,an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be anaccurate account.Having said that,the archaeology tells a different story.”
20.By contrast/in comparison通过比较Usage:Use“bycontrast”or“in comparison”when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence.
Example:“Scholar A’s opinion,then,is based oninsufficient evidence.By contrast,Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.”